FERA (Federal Emergency Relief Administration)
Established in 1933 by Harry Hopkins, a close advisor to Franklin Roosevelt, this agency was the first of the New Deal's major relief operations. It provided assistance for the unemployed, supporting nearly five million households each month by funding work projects for more than 20 million people. It also provided vaccinations and literacy classes for millions who could not afford them. Both Hopkins and Roosevelt believed in a work ethic based on payment for services and that "earning one's keep" was an important aspect in building the morale and self-esteem of the dole recipients.