Generally speaking, few merit-based scholarships consider students with anything below an A average. The most prestigious national scholarships typically go to those with a perfect 4.0 grade point average (GPA) coming out of high school.
GPA isn't the only consideration, of course. SAT/ACT scores and excellence in a particular area (such as basketball or music) also factor into the equation. But the GPA requirement is often non-negotiable, if only because scholarships and grants are so competitive. Let's say 10,000 students are applying for five scholarships, and the qualifications call for a 3.8 GPA. Reviewers probably won't even bother opening the full application for students with a 3.7 if there are plenty of applicants who meet or exceed the GPA criteria [source: FinAid].
Need-based aid relies far less on GPA and academic performance in general than the merit-based grants. This type of aid, which includes Stafford Loans, Pell Grants and the majority of discounts offered by institutions, looks almost exclusively at income -- the basic capacity to cover the costs of a college education. Still, GPA does play a role in getting admitted to a school in the first place. Most schools require a GPA verification form alongside the FAFSA (Free Application for Federal Student Aid) an applicant sends in to qualify for federal, need-based assistance. The GPA thresholds vary by school, but for a university, it's always a factor.
The GPA considerations don't end once the student qualifies for assistance. Academic performance is a constant consideration, and students who drop below a certain pre-determined GPA for any semester risk losing their aid package, whether it's public or private, federal or state, scholarship or loan. There are "academic progress" requirements for any type of assistance. Most commonly, this entails maintaining a minimum GPA (sometimes as low as 1.75, sometimes as high as 3.0) and passing some minimum percentage of the credit hours a student is enrolled in.
For this reason, it's absolutely crucial that anyone receiving financial aid and needing to leave school officially withdraw from classes instead of just not showing up and taking an F. Failing classes can not only make financial aid go away; it can also make it so that money initially awarded debt-free must be paid back, and students who don't pay it back can't re-enroll in school or re-qualify. Letting a GPA drop below the minimum can pause or even end the pursuit of a college degree.
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