So, you want to become a local. Work is the no-brainer location to meet new people, as are bars and coffee shops. But what if you work at a tiny company or out of your home? Or don't drink alcohol or caffeine? The best way to meet local people is to get out of your house and get involved.
There are many opportunities to meet like-minded people, especially in urban areas. If you're outdoorsy, you can join a running or biking club. You can head over to the gym if you're a fitness fan. Artsy craftsy? Take a painting or sewing class. Civic-minded? Why not volunteer at a local charity? If you're religious, there's church. The literary type? Find a book club. You get the idea.
If you're not a joiner by nature, you may find that simply being a regular at a local restaurant or pub will open doors for you. You'll eventually become a recognizable face that gets included in the conversation.